Present Situation and Main Problems of Paper Industry in China
(I) basic information
Since the reform and opening up, China's economy has grown at an average annual rate of 9.67 (1978-2006). During the same period, the output of paper and paperboard in China's paper industry has increased from 4.39 million tons to 65 million tons, and the consumption of paper and paperboard has increased from 4.89 million tons to 66 million tons.
China has become the main producer and consumer of paper products in the world (both production and consumption rank second in the world), and it is also the main importer of paper products in the world, with a self-sufficiency rate of more than 90%. Basically meet the consumer demand of domestic press and publishing, printing, commodity packaging and other related industries. In 2005, there were about 3600 paper and paperboard production enterprises in China, with an effective production capacity of about 70 million tons. In 2005, the total industrial output value of China's paper and paperboard enterprises above designated size was 262.2 billion yuan, an increase of 146.7 percent over 2000, with an average annual growth rate of 19.8 percent; total assets were 322.8 billion yuan, an increase of 61.9 percent over 2000, with an average annual growth rate of 10.1 percent; and sales revenue was 254.6 billion yuan, an increase of 152.1 percent over 2000, with an average annual growth rate of 20.0 percent. During the "Tenth Five-Year Plan" period, China's paper industry has entered a period of rapid development, mainly showing the following characteristics.
1, the policy environment is basically established, the development of forest-paper integration to form a consensus.
During the "Tenth Five-Year Plan" period, relevant state ministries and commissions included pulp, paper and paperboard in the national "Industrial Structure Adjustment Guidance Catalog" and "Foreign Investment Industry Guidance Catalog"; in order to adjust the unreasonable papermaking raw material structure and solve the paper industry The bottleneck problem of sustainable development, the State Council approved the "Several Opinions on Accelerating the Construction of Raw Material Forest Bases in the Paper Industry" and the "Tenth Five-Year Plan for the National Forestry and Paper Integration Project and 2010". Through the publicity and implementation of the plan, the whole society has gradually formed a consensus on the integrated development of forestry and paper. With the orderly implementation of a number of forestry-paper integration projects, the development of the paper industry has entered a new period of development.
2, production and consumption increased rapidly, the quality of industry operation significantly improved.
During the "Tenth Five-Year Plan" period, China's paper and paperboard consumption and production grew rapidly, and the growth rate of production was higher than that of consumption, effectively meeting the demand. In 2005, China's consumption of paper and paperboard was 59.3 million tons, up 65.9 percent from 2000, with an average annual growth rate of 10.7 percent. The per capita annual consumption increased from 27.8kg to 45.0kg, exceeding the per capita consumption in Asia by about 10kg, but there is still a considerable gap compared with the world's per capita consumption of 56.3kg. Production reached 56 million tons, up 83.6 percent from 2000, with an average annual growth rate of 12.9 percent. During the "Tenth Five-Year Plan" period, the operation quality of the paper industry has been significantly improved. The total output value of paper and paperboard was 262.2 billion yuan, an increase of 146.7 per cent over 2000, an average annual increase of 19.8 per cent; the added value increased from 35.8 billion yuan to 72.7 billion yuan, an increase of 103.1 per cent, an average annual increase of 15.2 per cent; the total profits increased from 9.57 billion yuan to 22.52 billion yuan, an increase of 135.4 per cent, an average annual increase of 18.7 per cent; the total profits increased from 4.39 billion yuan to 12.32 billion yuan, an increase of 180.6 per cent, an average annual increase of 22.9 per cent; physical labor productivity increased from 29.6 tons/person-year to 73.4 tons/person-year, with an average annual increase of 19.9.
3. The raw material structure has been improved and the product structure has been further optimized.
During the "Tenth Five-Year Plan" period, China's paper industry made full use of both domestic and foreign resources, and the raw material structure was further optimized. The proportion of wood pulp increased, from 19% to 22%; the proportion of waste pulp increased rapidly, from 41% to 54%, and the proportion of non-wood pulp decreased significantly, from 40% to 24%. Through adjustment during the "Tenth Five-Year Plan" period, paper and paperboard products began to adapt to consumer demand, from quantity to quality. Products that are urgently needed or in short supply in the market, such as newsprint, high-grade cultural office paper, coated paper and coated packaging board, kraft cardboard, medium and high-grade household paper, etc., have developed rapidly, alleviating the contradiction between supply and demand. The proportion of medium and high-grade products has increased from 45 per cent during the Ninth Five-Year Plan period to 60 per cent.
4, enterprise restructuring efforts increased, industrial concentration has increased.
During the "Tenth Five-Year Plan" period, my country's paper-making enterprises have intensified their reorganization. Many powerful enterprises have carried out cross-provincial and cross-regional mergers and acquisitions across the country, developing in the direction of collectivization, characteristics, and diversification. A group of advanced production technology and equipment, Modern paper-making enterprises with good product reputation, resource integration capabilities and strong competitiveness stand out. At present, there are 26 paper-making enterprises listed in Shenzhen and Shanghai, and a number of leading enterprises have developed rapidly through stock market financing. At the same time, the market share and industry influence of private and foreign-funded enterprises have continued to increase, and they have become a new force in the stable development of my country's paper industry, forming a diversified competition pattern. In 2005, there were more than 90 paper-making enterprises with an annual output of more than 100000 tons, including 25 paper-making enterprises with an annual output of more than 300000 tons and 7 paper-making enterprises with an annual output of more than 1 million tons. the output, sales revenue and total profits and taxes of the top 20 enterprises in the industry accounted for 29.2 per cent, 32.6 per cent and 41.9 per cent of the above-mentioned indicators of all enterprises above scale, respectively. During the "Tenth Five-Year Plan" period, the output increase of the top 20 enterprises accounted for 44.1 per cent of the total output increase, and showed a trend of gradual expansion.
5, pollution prevention and control has achieved initial results, and resource consumption has been further reduced.
During the "Tenth Five-Year Plan" period, my country's paper-making enterprises actively implemented cleaner production and increased environmental governance. The environmental protection department increased environmental monitoring and investigation of pollution problems, and shut down more than 1500 pulp and paper with high energy consumption and high pollution. enterprise. With an increase of 83.6 per cent in output, the total amount of industrial wastewater discharged only increased slightly from 3.53 billion tons in 2000 to 3.67 billion tons in 2005, while the proportion of the total amount of wastewater discharged by key statistical enterprises in the country decreased from 18.6 per cent to 17.0 per cent, with the rate of reaching the standard increased from 53.7 per cent to 91.3 per cent, and the amount of chemical oxygen demand (COD) discharged decreased from 2.877 million to 1.597 million tons, the proportion of the total chemical oxygen demand emissions of key statistical enterprises in the country fell from 44.0 per cent to 32.4 per cent. The problem of environmental pollution in the paper industry has been alleviated to a large extent, and the development momentum is good. During the "Tenth Five-Year Plan" period, the resource consumption of my country's paper industry has decreased. The average comprehensive energy consumption per ton of pulp, paper and paperboard has dropped from 1.55 tons of standard coal to 1.38 tons of standard coal, and the average water intake per ton of pulp, paper and paperboard has increased from 139 tons. To about 103 tons. Due to the increased recycling of waste paper, the consumption of virgin pulp per ton of paper and paperboard has decreased from an average of 541kg to 427kg.
The main problems of (II)
1, the scale is unreasonable, the level of economies of scale is low.
In 2005, the average size of the world's wood pulp mills (excluding China) was 200000 tons. China has more than 50 enterprises with wood pulp making capacity, with an average annual output of 100000 tons, and only 4 enterprises have reached the world average size. The average size of the world's paper-making enterprises (excluding China) is 80000 tons per year, while the average size of China's paper-making enterprises is only 19000 tons, and there are only more than 80 enterprises that have reached the world average size. Compared with the top ten paper companies in the world, the total output of the top ten paper companies in my country is only one-tenth, and the total sales are only 4%. Generally speaking, there are few large groups and strong enterprises in China's pulp and paper industry, and most of the pulp and paper enterprises are too small. This situation makes the scale benefit of the enterprise can not be realized, which limits the improvement of the enterprise's technical level, equipment level, product grade and effective prevention and control of pollution.
2, high-quality raw materials gap, high dependence on foreign
With the growth of paper and paperboard consumption and the rapid increase of modern paper industry capacity, the contradiction between supply and demand of domestic fiber raw materials is prominent, and the gap is increasing year by year. In 2005, China's total pulp consumption was 52 million tons, including 11.3 million tons of wood pulp, 12.6 million tons of non-wood pulp and 28.1 million tons of waste pulp, accounting for 22%, 24% and 54% of the total pulp consumption respectively. The proportion of raw wood pulp in the total pulp consumption of the international paper industry is 63% on average, while the proportion of wood pulp produced in China has been only about 7%. In terms of import dependence, China imported 7.59 million tons of wood pulp and 17.03 million tons of waste paper in 2005, and the proportion of imported wood pulp and imported waste paper in the total consumption of raw materials increased from 22.6 per cent in 2000 to 40.8 per cent. If the imported wood pulp and waste paper are converted into paper and cardboard, plus directly imported paper and cardboard, about 47% of China's total consumption of 59.3 million tons in 2005 will depend on imports, affecting the healthy and sustainable development of the paper industry. Although the development of forestry-paper integration has reached a consensus, it is still in its infancy.
3, high resource consumption, pollution prevention and control tasks are arduous
The unreasonable raw material structure and scale structure of the paper industry and the low level of technical equipment determine the high consumption of water, energy and materials in China's paper industry and become the main source of pollution. In terms of comprehensive energy consumption and comprehensive water consumption per ton of pulp and paper, the international advanced level is 0.9-1.2 tons of standard coal and 35-50 tons of comprehensive water intake per ton of pulp and paper. Except for a few enterprises or some production lines that have reached the international advanced level, the average comprehensive energy consumption per ton of pulp and paper in most enterprises is about 1.38 tons of standard coal, and the average comprehensive water intake is still at a high level of about 103 tons. In 2005, the wastewater discharge from the paper industry was 3.67 billion tons, accounting for about 17.0 of the total wastewater discharge from key statistical enterprises in the country, and the COD discharge was 1.597 million tons, accounting for 32.4 of the total COD discharge from key statistical enterprises in the country. Among them, the output of straw pulp production line with alkali recovery device only accounts for 30.0 of the total output of straw pulp, and the COD emission of straw pulp accounts for more than 60% of the emission of the whole paper industry, which is still the main pollution source. China's paper industry is still facing great pressure on environmental protection, and the task of pollution prevention and control is very arduous.
4, equipment research and development capacity is poor, advanced equipment depends on imports.
During the "Tenth Five-Year Plan" period, the overall level of research, development, and manufacturing of my country's pulping and papermaking technology and equipment is relatively low. Except for some non-wood fiber pulping technology and equipment suitable for my country's national conditions, domestic paper companies and pulping The papermaking equipment manufacturing enterprises failed to become the main body of research and development, and the ability of original innovation, integrated innovation and introduction, digestion, absorption and re-innovation was weak. The research on pulping and papermaking technology and equipment is mainly based on non-wood pulp, and the equipment manufacturing industry can only provide an annual output of 100000 tons of bleached chemical wood (bamboo) pulp and alkali recovery equipment, an annual output of less than 100000 tons of cultural paper machines and an annual output of 200000 tons of cardboard machines and other small and medium-sized equipment. There is a big gap between the technical level and foreign countries, and large-scale advanced pulp and paper technology and equipment are almost entirely dependent on imports.
5. The capital structure needs to be optimized, and the task of coordinated development is urgent.
During the "Tenth Five-Year Plan" period, China's paper industry has made remarkable achievements in utilizing foreign capital. The entry of foreign-funded enterprises has played an important role in the structural adjustment of the paper industry, the optimization of product structure, the improvement of management level and the relief of financial pressure. In 2005, the total assets of foreign-invested enterprises in China's paper industry accounted for 43%, and the total net assets accounted for 45%. In China's high-grade paper and paperboard market share, foreign-funded enterprises have accounted for more than 50%. Compared with foreign-funded enterprises, there are a large number of domestic-funded enterprises, and most of them have problems to be solved, such as small asset scale, low equipment level, small product market share and poor competitiveness. Therefore, while adhering to the rational use of foreign capital in opening up to the outside world, we should attach importance to the further optimization of the industrial capital structure, position the common survival and development space of various economic types of paper-making enterprises in China, speed up the union, merger and reorganization of the industry, form a reasonable diversified investment subject and a reasonable enterprise organizational structure, and improve the international competitiveness of China's paper-making enterprises as soon as possible.